Castor oil is the unsung hero of the hair world—you might even be tempted to ditch your coconut oil for it after reading this. First of all, castor oil has antifungal and antibacterial properties to help combat scalp infections that prevent your hair from growing. Second, it’s filled with omega-6 fatty acids, vitamin E, proteins, and other nutrients that can penetrate your parched strands and seal your hair shaft to retain moisture. Thirdly, it makes an amazing hot oil treatment—massaging the oil into your roots will help your scalp drink up all of the nutrients and help promote hair growth.
Excessive hair loss led me to this product about six years ago, and having sought advice from physicians ("It's stress"), a vitamin guru ($150 later) and all the information I could glean from the internet, I was wisely advised by my dermatologist to try men's Rogaine. The price, however, was a major deterrent, so more sleuthing led me to Walmart, and their version of Rogaine -- just plain minoxidil, but at an affordable price. Equate did wonders! And has continued to work its volumizing wonders over the years. My hair's thick and shiny, and while it undergoes spells of temporary loss, it always returns in full volume. I couldn't live without this product -- and a three-months' supply for a little more than $18 (5% solution), it's not only a bargain, but a blessing!!
Dr. Melissa Piliang, a dermatologist at the Cleveland Clinic, said that Rogaine works better on the top and crown (for reasons not fully understood, the frontal hairline tends to be more resistant to treatment) and ideally should be started as soon as women notice thinning. “Any regrowth you get is a minimal amount,” Dr. Piliang said. “So the more density when you start, the better results you get.”

The causes behind other types of hair loss -- including alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, anagen effluvium and traction alopecia -- and their treatment can be dramatically different. Hair loss is best treated in association with its underlying cause; therefore, it's recommend to seek medical help. Abnormal hair loss can also be a symptom of a more serious disease -- early diagnosis is strongly suggested in these cases.
The most common side effects are itching and other skin irritations of the treated area of the scalp. Minoxidil topical solution 2% contains alcohol, which would cause burning or irritation of the eyes or sensitive skin areas. If minoxidil topical solution 2% accidentally gets into these areas, rinse with large amounts of cool tap water. Contact your doctor if irritation persists.

Joseph Greco, Ms. Telford’s practitioner, who shares a patent for a process to remove growth factors from platelets, said he gets results in 80 percent of patients, more than half of whom are female. Roughly half of them fly in and out, often on the same day, he said, because the procedure doesn’t require downtime and has minimal side effects. (Small clinical studies suggest further research is necessary but acknowledge the procedure’s “excellent safety profile.”)
Other Information see hair loss pictures on side of this carton before use, read all information on carton and enclosed insert keep the carton. It contains important information. in clinical studies of mostly white women aged 18-45 years with mild to moderate degrees of hair loss, the following response to minoxidil topical solution 2% was reported: 19% of women reported moderate hair regrowth after using minoxidil topical solution 2% for 8 months (19% had moderate regrowth; 40% had minimal regrowth). This compares with 7% of women reporting moderate hair regrowth after using the placebo, the liquid without minoxidil in it, for 8 months (7% had moderate regrowth; 33% had minimal regrowth). store at controlled room temperature 20° - 25°C (68° - 77°F). Keep tightly closed.
Coming in at number 7 is the tablet formulation from Research Verified. This tablet formulation contains a mixture of multi-vitamin blends and trusted compounds known to promote hair growth and prevent future hair fall. The product is manufactured in US FDA certified labs ensuring high quality. Containing active ingredients such as Saw Palmetto and Ginkgo biloba, help promote natural and lustrous hair regrowth.
Utilize caution when utilizing a compost tumbler, however, because hair does not appear to compost completely in them. Hair exists in a number of textures. Cutting the hair also might be an indication of mourning. Human hair is among those important things that form the idea of beauty. Human facial hair grows faster than every other hair physically.
Defy hair loss with ROGAINE®, the #1 dermatologist-recommended, FDA-approved brand with a clinically proven formula to regrow hair. Unlike thickening shampoos that temporarily coat the hair, ROGAINE® penetrates deep into your scalp to revive follicles and increase protein production so you can grow new, fuller, thicker hair. The revolutionary formula begins to work on contact with patented Tricho-Prime™ Technology, a proprietary combination of ingredients that primes your scalp for optimal hair regrowth. 

There’s no cure for baldness, but there are ways to hold on to what you've got. The six dermatologists and the clinical studies point to three methods: minoxidil, laser treatments, and prescription finasteride. The key is finding the combination and hair loss regimen that works for you. A doctor is your best bet for that kind of guidance — but we found a few trustworthy products that will work for most people.

Ketoconazole is another off-label treatment that stands out for treating hair loss. Ketoconazole is the active ingredient in Nizoral shampoo, and 2 percent strength is often prescribed to treat dandruff -- a 1 percent formula is sold over the counter, but reviewers say that it's not as effective. Many men choose to triple-treat their hair loss with minoxidil, Propecia and Nizoral shampoo. Studies show promising results with ketoconazole, though not any better than minoxidil or Propecia, but experts insist that further study is needed.
It works. Im on my second three pak. At 6 weeks its scary. You will lose more hair. Then it will grow back. Thicker, in my case with more gray and darker. But lots of healthy shiny hair that is not 'shedding" or coming out in huge amounts. My widows peak has rescinded and my part looks great. Im starting my 5th month. People who know me (because my hair was so thin prior) tell me/ask me if Ive used it. (In a whisper, like its a bad thing. Im like HELL YEAH, cmon, cmon, pull it..it feels great) People who dont know me compliment my thick hair. Get a good haircut and give it three months. Very happy and the best beauty value at 15.00 a month that I can imagine.
As the name suggests, androgenetic alopecia involves the action of the hormones called androgens, which are essential for normal male sexual development and have other important functions in both sexes, including sex drive and regulation of hair growth. The condition may be inherited and involve several different genes. It can also result from an underlying endocrine condition, such as overproduction of androgen or an androgen-secreting tumor on the ovary, pituitary, or adrenal gland. In either case, the alopecia is likely related to increased androgen activity. But unlike androgenetic alopecia in men, in women the precise role of androgens is harder to determine. On the chance that an androgen-secreting tumor is involved, it's important to measure androgen levels in women with clear female pattern hair loss.
You can maximize your results from minoxidil by dying your hair after two to three months of treatment. Minoxidil tends to create very fine hairs at first, and dying the hair increases the contrast between the hairs and the scalp, making the new hair growth area look denser. This is one common technique in before/after photos for hair loss treatments.
Like the long-suffering friend who inspired her to undergo the procedure, Ms. Telford quickly saw an improvement in her hair. New hair growth usually take at least four months, but at the two-month mark, she has already spotted some baby hairs. “Not a gazillion,” she said, “but it’s a start.” She’s planning to return for follow-up treatments every six months, and has high hopes of ditching the wigs and wearing her hair in a pixie.
Sure, you can easily pop a hair growth supplement, but honestly, the word's still out on whether or not they're an effective way to help your hair grow faster. Plus, they can contain unnecessary large amounts of minerals and vitamins (ahem, biotin) which can actually wreak havoc in other ways (ahem, breakouts). Thus, eating your way to longer hair is actually a smarter, nutritionist-approved way to make your hair grow faster. Vitamins and minerals occurring naturally in foods are easier for your body to utilize, and they'll naturally deliver a healthier ratio of nutrients—just the way Mother Nature intended. 
Thank you. This has been the most helpful article I have read! Very much appreciated! Last question (I won’t bug you with anymore after this) . . . I was tested by my doctor and came out perfectly healthy so it is either stress or MPB. My job is extremely stressful so it could be that but I have no way or knowing for sure. As such, do you think there is any harm on me taking finasteride even if it isn’t MPB and is just stress? I suppose if the medicine didn’t work, I would know it was stress and not MPB. Also, I assume this is something I would continue to take for life right?
You may have seen the ads in the back of men's magazines, you've heard the commercials on the radio, and you've seen the infomercials promoting miracle treatments for hair loss. The bottom line is that most advertised "treatments" do not work for the prevention and treatment of hair loss. If a hair loss treatment is not approved by the FDA or recommended by the American Hair Loss Association, chances are you are wasting your time and money.
Joseph Greco, Ms. Telford’s practitioner, who shares a patent for a process to remove growth factors from platelets, said he gets results in 80 percent of patients, more than half of whom are female. Roughly half of them fly in and out, often on the same day, he said, because the procedure doesn’t require downtime and has minimal side effects. (Small clinical studies suggest further research is necessary but acknowledge the procedure’s “excellent safety profile.”)

Like minoxidil, finasteride, the active ingredient in Propecia, was originally created with a different purpose in mind -- to treat enlarged prostate glands -- and researchers observed it came with a side effect of hair growth. Unlike topical minoxidil, finasteride requires a prescription, is taken orally and addresses hormonal causes of hair loss. It inhibits the enzyme type II 5-alpha reductase, which converts testosterone into DHT. As it was the first truly effective treatment for hair loss that provided nearly guaranteed results, finasteride revolutionized the hair-loss-treatment industry.
Massaging the scalp can help to restore hair growth and can be used in conjunction with hair oils and masks. This stimulates the scalp and can improve hair thickness. Taking the time to massage your scalp each day can also help you relieve stress and tension. It’s thought that stretching forces during the massage encourage hair growth and thickness in the dermal papilla cells.
Massaging the scalp can help to restore hair growth and can be used in conjunction with hair oils and masks. This stimulates the scalp and can improve hair thickness. Taking the time to massage your scalp each day can also help you relieve stress and tension. It’s thought that stretching forces during the massage encourage hair growth and thickness in the dermal papilla cells.
The easy-to-use spray bottle allows you to apply the serum directly to your scalp, or you can spray it onto your hands to rub into parts of your scalp. Each bottle offers a three month supply and should be used twice daily. It has outstanding reviews online, partly because it does not leave a sticky residue or cause preliminary hair shedding like most other regrowth treatments.
I will write more later, but this morning, I confirmed that YES this is working. It's totally working. I have new growth all over the "test" area (I was afraid of the dread shed) where I was using it. It's been about 6 weeks. The growth is healthy--these are thick, normal hairs. I tried a bunch of natural stuff before this. I was freaking out, thinking there were wigs in my future. My hair is still falling out a lot, but to see regrowth is such an incredible relief. I just want to put this out there to everyone who is struggling with hair loss, for whatever reason--i don't care what the studies say--this is abundant regrowth. And it's definitely from the romaine. Not crazy about putting chemicals on my head every day, but the stress and worry about my hair was almost definitely more toxic than whatever is in this. No side effects that I've noticed.

This procedure can take several hours. First, surgeons remove an elliptical strip 3 to 4 inches long from the back of the scalp and trim the hairs short (A). The strip is then divided into 500 to 2,000 separate follicular units, each containing only a few hairs (). The units are then planted in an equivalent number of slits made in the scalp in the area of missing hair (C).


My scalp is dry, itchy, and irritated everywhere. I’ve been using H&S Clinical Strength shampoo for 2-3 years and its been pretty good at keeping it under control. I’ve been using rogaine for about 1 year now and I’m trying to avoid propecia if possible. Recently my hairline has quickly recede, and I’m not sure what to do. My friend said to start using nizoral every couple days. Do you recommend Nizoral for every few days? If so, what conditioner do you recommend and what shampoo do you recommend for the other days of the week when not using Nizoral? Thanks for your help – great site.
And don’t bother reading those types of articles, they will just get in your head and make you experience side effects psychologically. If finasteride would be so detrimental to your health, it wouldn’t be available to the general public. There are millions of men taking it with no side effects who just go on about their lives, without reading paranoid articles on online forums.
Yoga can stimulate your scalp by improving blood and oxygen flow in the body. This results in enough nutrients reaching the hair follicles and rejuvenating them, having an automatic effect on the growth cycle of the hair. Yoga can also help to regulate the body’s hormones that affect hair growth and hair loss. Some yoga poses (asanas) that are recommended for hair growth are:
Hair doesn’t make the man. Remind yourself of everything else you have to offer. Or take care of things you can control, like staying in shape. It’s OK to look to others for support. And if you need a little inspiration, think of bald men or guys with shaved heads who ooze confidence, like The Rock, Vin Diesel, and Pitbull. Consider yourself in good company.

Oral supplements can also be effective if the result of the problem that causes the hair loss in the first place. For example, women with a lack of iron or zinc in their diet may have thinning hair. Or persons taking certain medications may not absorb enough nutrients from food to support healthy hair growth. Also, remedies like saw palmetto and Fo-Ti appear to block the production of DHT.
“I think their effectiveness is not as significant as finasteride or minoxidil,” says Dr. Wolfeld, “however, it’s something that can be used quite easily by patients at home. If they use it two or three times a week, I tell them it can help to thicken their hair.” Results can take up to 18 months to show up, so Dr. Wolfeld stresses that patience is a virtue.
While you won’t find a miracle shampoo on the market, nioxin and some other products can help keep your scalp in tip-top shape to improve the look of any hairs you do have left on your head. In fact, feeding your hair with the proper nutrients both inside and out can make it appear healthier, so you might consider using products with natural herbs, such as rosemary and mint.
Domen, I was reading some articles and also the links you’ve provided in your other comments above – they say both Finesteride and Minoxidil only check further hair loss and thicken existing hair – but both can’t re-generate hair that’s already gone from bald spots. I guess the effectiveness of these 2 medications are quite proportionate to age of the native! At 42, I guess, I am old 🙁 Atleast according to Indian standards!!
Your hair is said to be your crowning glory, and it’s normal to want to improve your hair if it’s not to your satisfaction. If you’re trying to regrow hair that you’ve lost or would simply like to improve the hair that you have, try some of these natural remedies. Their proven benefits can help to stimulate growth and enhance the hair that you have.
Reality is, if finasterise is so safe, why doesn’t merk market this drug as a vaccine for hair loss? For every man north of 18 to take this drug to prevent the possibility of balding? It’s safe, so why not? Truth is the science isn’t clear that either AR inhibition or DHT reduction is safe. All we know is that merk did a study and were able to publish data that suits their agenda.
"The majority of men lose their hair not through stress, or bad diet, or lack of sleep, but through the genetic trait of male pattern baldness which is hard to treat through shampoos or supplements alone. Women lose their hair for very different reasons, but the argument still stands that a lot of the hair loss products on the market are just offering false hope. That said, there are a few that really work."

“There’s people selling pills and creams and lotions and whatever else, and sometimes you can’t even trust what ingredients they have in there,” he warned us when we spoke to him over the phone. Key takeaway: The hair loss industry is crazy dishonest, so we eliminated any treatments (especially homeopathic methods) that aren’t based in concrete, peer-reviewed science.

Sure, you can easily pop a hair growth supplement, but honestly, the word's still out on whether or not they're an effective way to help your hair grow faster. Plus, they can contain unnecessary large amounts of minerals and vitamins (ahem, biotin) which can actually wreak havoc in other ways (ahem, breakouts). Thus, eating your way to longer hair is actually a smarter, nutritionist-approved way to make your hair grow faster. Vitamins and minerals occurring naturally in foods are easier for your body to utilize, and they'll naturally deliver a healthier ratio of nutrients—just the way Mother Nature intended. 


2. Pyrithione zinc shampoo. Traditional volumizing shampoos will give the hair you have a lift so it looks fuller (we like the sulfate-free L’Oréal Paris EverPure Volume Shampoo, $8). But some research suggests shampoos with the antidandruff ingredient zinc pyrithione can mitigate hair loss that’s caused by conditions like dandruff, says Mirmirani. Try Head & Shoulders Deep Moisture Shampoo ($6), and use a conditioner without silicones — they can make hair appear limper, especially if it's applied near the roots (we like Love Beauty and Planet Coconut Water & Mimosa Flower Conditioner, $9).
In men, finasteride (originally marketed as Proscar) is approved for hair loss associated with androgens. In one study, 62% of women also taking oral contraceptives containing the synthetic progestin drospirenone reported improvement. So it may be effective for female hair loss in the setting of increased androgen. But studies are limited and it is harmful to the male fetus so should not be used by women thinking about becoming pregnant or who are pregnant.

How to use minoxidil: Be sure that your hair and scalp are dry. Using the dropper or spray pump that's provided with the over-the-counter solution, apply it twice daily to every area where your hair is thinning. Gently massage it into the scalp with your fingers so it can reach the hair follicles. Then air-dry your hair, wash your hands thoroughly, and wash off any solution that has dripped onto your forehead or face. Don't shampoo for at least four hours afterwards.

That meant new products like Hims and Keeps were out.Hims and Keeps are relatively new companies that allow you to set up a subscription for hair loss treatments. Both offer finasteride (after an online consultation with a doctor) or 5 percent minoxidil. However, their minoxidil solutions contain propylene glycol, so we cut them from consideration.
Viviscal is a natural hair-growth supplement that promotes hair growth in people with thinning hair. It contains a marine complex known as AminoMar C. This is made of minerals, vitamins, and shark and mollusk powder. These ingredients help to regenerate new cells and strengthen existing cells. You have to take the pills twice a day for at least six months in order to see results. Viviscal also makes a shampoo and conditioner.
I had hair problems issues like dandruff, hair fall and lots more. Frankly speaking tried many allophathic hair products but i was not satisfied with the results of that products… Then someone suggested me ayurvedic product then for trial i bought 3 months package and i started getting results and i complete my course as suggested by Dr. Vipul. Now i am satisfied with my hair and thanks to arogyam hair care kit… Thanks once again.
There’s also a women’s version (Women’s Rogaine Foam) — but a three-month supply costs $22 more online. The only difference between the two products are the instructions; women are instructed to apply once a day instead of twice. If you’re a woman who doesn’t feel like paying extra for marketing, the men’s product will suffice. A cheaper generic version is Kirkland Signature Minoxidil Foam, but with a longer history on the market and more customer testimonials, Rogaine is our first choice.
Every woman desires thick, long, and lustrous hair. From teenagers to oldies, everyone loves their hair because of the pivotal role it plays in defining one’s face and looks. Luscious hair that has enough shine, length, and strength is what everyone tries to achieve. Unfortunately, hair fall, hair loss, and impaired hair growth are common hair issues that people face. Hectic lifestyles, pollution, and adulterated hair care products are to blame. If you want an effective, safe, and easy solution for your hair growth problems, this article can help you.
Coming in at number 10 is a topical solution of 2{fb6dbafde8b07077c47190f01cc66a00f2a1889c1c1e7dc76005cbe93156625a} minoxidil. Minoxidil promotes the blood flow in the roots of the hair and promotes the regrowth of new and shiny strands of hair. Applied twice a day, the solution does have some good results. The formula is unscented and does not leave any residue so that you can confidently wear it while you are out and about as well.
As with transplants, the word toupee conjures an outdated and disagreeable image. The 70s-style rugs have mostly been traded in for spiffier "hair replacement systems." But the basic concept -- a foreign object atop your head -- can only evolve so far. Of course, the effectiveness of hairpieces is tough to evaluate. You may spot an awful one now and then, but the ones you do spot are just the awful ones. Who knows how many masterpieces slip undetected under the radar?
Central centrifugal cicatricial (scarring) alopecia: This type of hair loss occurs most often in women of African descent. It begins in the center of the scalp. As it progresses, the hair loss radiates out from the center of the scalp. The affected scalp becomes smooth and shiny. The hair loss can be very slow or rapid. When hair loss occurs quickly, the person may have tingling, burning, pain, or itching on the scalp. Treatment may help the hair re-grow if scarring has not occurred.
The causes behind other types of hair loss -- including alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, anagen effluvium and traction alopecia -- and their treatment can be dramatically different. Hair loss is best treated in association with its underlying cause; therefore, it's recommend to seek medical help. Abnormal hair loss can also be a symptom of a more serious disease -- early diagnosis is strongly suggested in these cases.

Instead, you may want to add vitamin D (about $15) to your shopping cart. A vitamin D deficiency can exacerbate hair thinning and make it almost impossible for any over-the-counter product to reverse hair loss, says Dhaval Bhanusali, a dermatologist in New York City, who recommends taking 5,000 international units of D3 a day (and it’s generally beneficial for bone health in women over 40). “There’s also a link between low iron and zinc levels and temporary hair shedding, called [telogen] effluvium,” says Rogers. 

There’s also a women’s version (Women’s Rogaine Foam) — but a three-month supply costs $22 more online. The only difference between the two products are the instructions; women are instructed to apply once a day instead of twice. If you’re a woman who doesn’t feel like paying extra for marketing, the men’s product will suffice. A cheaper generic version is Kirkland Signature Minoxidil Foam, but with a longer history on the market and more customer testimonials, Rogaine is our first choice.

No. Minoxidil topical solution 2% will not work faster or better if used more than two times a day. Studies have been carefully conducted to determine the correct amount of minoxidil topical solution 2% needed to get the best results. More frequent use or larger doses have not been shown to speed up hair growth and may increase your chances of side effects.
Hi, great article. I have an aggressive form of MPB. I am 23 year old with a NW2 hairline, diffuse thinning over the top and crown. Been on 5% Minoxidil and 2% Keto for about 9 months. Went through a period of shedding which has reduced somewhat in the last couple of months. I don’t see any appreciable increase in density anywhere but I do see plenty of thin vellus hair at my hairline. I am waiting for the 1 year mark to see the full effect of this regime. Is there like a test you can do to assess hairfall? Or do we just have to count the hair lost in the shower? Do you reckon I should start the Fin to hold on the the hair I have? Like most guys (actually a bit more than most guys seeing that I am young) I worry a lot about being in the 2% who experience disastrous sides from Fin. I do plan to check my DHT levels before I start, if I do at all, to see if I naturally have high/low DHT. That should tell me what to expect, to an extent.
Rogaine is one go the first companies to introduce 5{fb6dbafde8b07077c47190f01cc66a00f2a1889c1c1e7dc76005cbe93156625a} topical minoxidil for hair growth. The trusted brans contains a 5{fb6dbafde8b07077c47190f01cc66a00f2a1889c1c1e7dc76005cbe93156625a} high strength formulation which is available as a topical solution and in a foam formulation to extend penetration with the scalp and yield best results.
Hair: It’s a natural part of being a human. But when the temperature climbs, and skin is exposed, it’s one of those things that a good many of us want to control. This week, we’re tackling hairlessness, not just the process of hair removal (electric shavers and ingrown-hair treatments and aesthetician-approved tweezers) but also what to buy when you’re losing your hair, and even how to take care of a Sphynx cat. Here, we’re talking to dermatologists and hair-loss doctors about hair-loss treatments that actually work.
A separate study, published in Skin Therapy Letter — a professional reference site for dermatologists — found that women also benefit from using the more potent 5 percent minoxidil treatment. “Patient-reported improvement in hair volume and coverage appears to be greater with 5 percent minoxidil foam,” reads the report. Plus, because the 5 percent treatment is stronger, women only have to apply it once a day to get the same results as they would with the 2 percent treatment applied twice daily.

Rogaine is one go the first companies to introduce 5{fb6dbafde8b07077c47190f01cc66a00f2a1889c1c1e7dc76005cbe93156625a} topical minoxidil for hair growth. The trusted brans contains a 5{fb6dbafde8b07077c47190f01cc66a00f2a1889c1c1e7dc76005cbe93156625a} high strength formulation which is available as a topical solution and in a foam formulation to extend penetration with the scalp and yield best results.
Keranique® Hair Regrowth System is CLINICALLY PROVEN and designed for women’s unique hair needs. We know you’ll love it, but if for any reason you're not completely satisfied, just call within 120 days of receipt, return the product as instructed, and you'll get a FULL REFUND of the purchase price (less s&p), even if the products are empty. Click ORDER NOW to take advantage of our Special TV Offer!
So I usually don't do reviews but other pops reviews have helped me make better buying decisions & I had to share mine as well... So I bought this equate stuff 2 wks ago. I bought my fiancé the men's one & I got the womens. I lost my edges due to yrs of weave & chemical damage. I did the BIG CHOP 2 yrs ago and now I am natural kinky curly 4c type of hair. My fiancé is balding in the front of his head & the middle. We have tried everything from: MegaTek horse shampoo Bosley hair stuff Nioxin hair stuff Massaging scalp with castor oil Etc This list goes on...so i decided that we try this one last thing before giving up So I also bought us both a derma roller for our scalp We started this equate treatment two wks ago and our hair is already growing in!!! What we did it derma roll our scalp every day or every other day Then apply the equate on our scalp twice a day like the box says Then let it dry Apply black castor oil to the scalp and massage it in Use a leave in conditioner Then wrap our heads at night with silk scarf Try this maybe it will help someone else cause it's working and helping me !!! Buy this stuff it's so worth it & not too pricey compared to other brands! Thank me later lol
For as long as men have been fretting over their expanding foreheads, they've been scrounging for hair loss treatments. From hippo fat pomades to the urine of young foals, history is full of just-so-crazy-they-might-work concoctions. They didn’t work. And a quick Googling reveals that most of the products and services marketed today are only slightly less absurd.
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